Monogamous Primates Behavioral Data Collection
Version 2008-01-01



The following protocol describes the general procedures we use for collecting behavioral data for the "Monogamous Primates Project". This is also the basic protocol upon which the "Ateline Primates Project" protocol was based, and in the protocol description below we have tried to note the key differences between these two protocols as a matter of reference. However, if you are working on the "Atelines Primate Project" you should read and follow the information contained in that protocol as it may differ slightly from that noted here. This protocol is divided into several sections: General Considerations, Behavioral Data Collection, and Notes for Collecting Data on Paper.




GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


This is a comparative behavioral study, and some of the most important data you will collect are behavioral observations of specific individuals using FOCAL ANIMAL SAMPLING and GROUP SCAN SAMPLING. We focus on recording behavioral observations that we are 100% sure of. Any observational data that you are not totally certain of because you cannot see the animal clearly or collect data on it with confidence should be indicated as such. That is, indicate when your focal animal is OUT OF VIEW using the letters “FV”, which signifies “FUERA DE VISTA” in Spanish. There will probably be many times when you cannot see a focal animal or a group member you are trying to scan very well, but you nonetheless have a good idea of its behavior. For example, you might see an animal entering a tree crown and then hear fruits dropping, but you cannot see the focal. In this case, you can reasonably infer that the behavioral state (“condition”) of the animal is “FORAGE” and you should note its behavior as “FFV” which means, “Forragear Fuera de Vista (Forage Out of View)”. The important thing is that you should be sure of what you note: “if in doubt, leave it out”!



AGE
CATEGORIES

Estimating the ages of some individuals is extremely difficult. For that reason, it is important to make a detailed description of the relative sizes of individuals that you know well (especially as we come to work with more groups) as these descriptions will allow us to make retrospective and comparative estimates of age. You may want to use or make reference to the size of other individuals of known age when describing the size of a new individual. This is particularly useful for young ones.  Before you begin collecting data, you should be familiar with the ages of the individuals known to be resident in the group by examining the database and summary demographic information.


CATEGORIES FOR DISTANCE ESTIMATION IMPORTANT NOTE:
I WOULD LIKE US TO STOP USING THE "<" CODE AND GO TO HAVING THE ACTUAL RANGE OF DISTANCES IN THE DBASE AND CODED IN THE PALMS.  WHAT DO YOU THINK? Note that in the Palms in both Ecuador and Argentina, we already have the distance categories set up this way.


GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS TO BE STUDIED

Observations will be collected on all groups in which it is possible to identify animals individually and unequivocally, whether by their collars or natural markings. You should rotate through all members of each social group as focal subjects. In Ecuador, until more animals are captured and marked, data will be collected from all individuals in the small number of social groups already collared.
It is very important that you do NOT name an individual in the data collected until we can recognize that individual not only within its group but outside of it. For example, unless we are sure we can identify Mondika anywhere it goes, we should not name it. It could happen that Mondika disperses, gets into another group without us noticing it and we could end up collecting data from the same individual in two different groups and giving the same individual two different names.

Names should be simple to write down. For example, Dartagnan, Krustzy are prone to errors (e.g. Krustzy has been entered into the database with three different spellings already). The names of the individuals in a given group should all begin with the same letter if at all possible (e.g., Mona and Mendel belong in Group M). And the names of the groups should reflect in some way the area where they are most likely to range making reference to areas known by everyone. In Ecuador, we have now implemented standard two letter codes for all individuals on the monogamous primate project and three letter codes or full names for all individuals on the ateline project.  These are listed in the “animal ids” table in the database.

We must not name individuals until we know their gender. And names should be as much as possible of general agreement for Spanish and English regarding their gender (e.g., Paul, Mary or Juan, Maria are good options, whereas Mondika or Kelly can be confusing. Mondika is thought of a female name in Spanish but may be a male name in English).


CHOICE OF SUBJECTS FOR BEHAVIORAL SAMPLING

Ideally, we would decide on a sampling order at random at the beginning of the month, but it is unlikely that we would be able to stick to such a schedule given observation conditions. If it is possible, at the beginning of the day, choose a random order of rotation through all members of the group being studied. From there, look for your first focal animal for behavioral data sampling. When you finish with that individual, change to the next subject following the pre-established order. When you have finished sampling each individual, repeat the order as many times as possible throughout the day. It may happen that when you arrive to sample a group, they are moving, in which case you can try to start a focal sample (after you have been there 5 minutes) on whomever you can, they idea being to not lose the opportunity to collect samples just because they are moving and it may be difficult to find your pre-established focal animal.

While this plan of pre-establishing the sampling order each day is ideal, it is proving impractical to stick to such a schedule given observation conditions. In this case, you can instead, collect focal data on whichever individuals it is possible to, but with an eye to balancing the total number and order of samples among individuals. The following procedure works pretty well: wander around under the group until you see your first animal. This should be your focal for your first twenty minute sample. At the end of the sample, look around until you encounter another individual (NOT the same one) and conduct another focal sample. Do not collect successive samples on the same individual unless they are separated by more than 20 minutes (i.e., the length of a focal sample). If you see multiple other individuals right away, choose the one you sampled the longest time ago. Repeat this procedure throughout the day. In Ecuador, your goal is to eventually be able to collect 10 to 12 focal samples per group during a full-day follow for the monogamous primate project, split among the various individuals in the group.


CHRONOGRAM AND INTENSITY OF BEHAVIORAL SAMPLING

The unit of time over which we want to have a balanced set of samples by group and by individual is the MONTH. The main goal is to have a nice monthly balance. If a given month ended unbalanced, you will try to balance it on the following month after having summarized the current month in your report. The report will provide an overall perspective on the sampling since it will summarize the focals done by all observers. That is, we want roughly the same number of samples per group of the same species (where we have more than one group collared) and per individual (including INFANTS) within those groups each month. It is also important to try to balance the order of focals as much as possible, also across the month. That is, at the end of each month, all groups and all individuals forming part of the study should have been sampled at roughly similar intensities and across the hours of the day. If you are collecting data on paper, the easiest way to keep track of your sampling intensity per animals is to keep one page free in the back of your Data Book with columns for the individuals being sampled and rows for the date and then make tally marks in the appropriate cell for each complete focal for each individual. If you are collecting data on the Palm, you could keep a tally of your monthly focal samples as a Memo in the Palm Memo program. In the main Proyecto Primates Database, you can tally from the 'focal samples' table. However you do it, keep track of how many focal samples you have on each individual and/or age-sex class of individual that you are supposed to sample.
Each day, add up the number of focal samples for each animal and choose the animal with the least focal samples for the next sample.


BEHAVIORAL DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE
You may begin collecting behavioral data on all identifiable individuals five minutes after you encounter a group. In Ecuador, you may also begin as early as 06:00 hours even if you have not been with the group for five minutes if you are on the second or greater day of a multiple day follow. Also, in Ecuador, all sampling should be suspended at 18:00 hours for the diurnal taxa, by which time both titi monkeys and sakis are typically in their sleep trees. Behavioral data will be collected using a combination of focal, group scan, all-occurrences, and ad libitum sampling, all being performed simultaneously.  The priority for data collection is to collect focal samples. However, this is not always possible as often the animals are difficult to see or (especially for the monogamous primate project) disappear into the tops of trees for stretches of time.

FOCAL SAMPLES


Focal behavior sampling periods will last 20 minutes. During a sampling period, you will collect instantaneous records of the behavior of your FOCAL ANIMAL every two minutes, beginning at minute 0, and scan data of the behavior all GROUP MEMBERS, and their distances from your focal individual, on minutes 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18. Finally, you will record data on all-occurrences of particular events and ad libitum data on rare behaviors.

Instantaneous Records within Focal Samples


Set your watch to beep at two minute intervals. After locating your focal animal, wait until your watch beeps the next time (to reduce the risk of biasing the beginning a sample towards conspicuous behavior that helped you to find the animal) and then begin the sample. At the beginning of each 2 minute interval (i.e., at minutes 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18, when your watch beeps) count off 5 seconds in you head and note the PREDOMINANT STATE (“condición”) that your focal individual was in, according to the definitions listed below. In rare cases where the animal is in more than one “condition” at the beep (e.g., Kiki is STT with Kong and SNN with Kelly, i.e., tail twining with one individual and nose-to-nose with a second), you should note both behaviors separated by a SLASH (“/”) in both your data book and when you enter the data on the computer (e.g., “STT/SNN/”). In this example, you would also indicate both partners in the partner column, separated by a slash, in the same order as the behaviors recorded (e.g., “KO/KE/”). Note that every behavior code and every individual ID is followed by a slash! That slash is necessary for when we parse the text in any given cell in the database during analysis.

Also, record the identity of the nearest neighbor of your focal animal. If there is more than one equidistant nearest neighbor, note the identity of all of them (separated by SLASHES and with a slash at the end as well), while if you cannot tell the nearest neighbor, note “UNK” for “unknown”. In total, a sampling period of 20 minutes will have 10 instantaneous behavioral sampling records and 10 nearest neighbor IDs associated with it for the focal individual. Note that if your focal animal is a dependent infant/juvenile being carried you should record as the nearest neighbor the closest animal NOT carrying your focal. Similarly, if your focal animal is carrying a dependent infant/juvenile, record as the nearest neighbor the closest individual that is NOT the dependent. However, if a dependent infant/juvenile is not on another individual, simply score the closest animal as its nearest neighbor.

To collect data on who is transporting an infant, you should record at every 2 minute instananeous record if your focal animal is carrying a dependent. The checkbox does not apply to infants. If your focal is an infant and it is being carried, the behavior code used should be SRI (Social Riding) with the appropriate partner indicated.

If another monkey of a different species is the nearest neighbor of your focal animal (rare, but it happens), record the species as the nearest neighbor as well as sex/age class if possible.

If your animal persists in being out of view for three consecutive sampling points during the first 10 minutes of a focal simple (see below) and you have no idea of its behavior, then you should cancel the focal and begin anew with another individual. If this happens during the second half of a focal sample, continue trying to sample the same focal individual for the remainder of the sample period before starting on a new individual. You will enter ALL data into the database, whether you completed the focal or not.


Group Scan Data within Focal Samples

On minutes 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 of each focal sampling period, in addition to the instantaneous record of your focal’s behavior, you will also perform a scan of all other animals in the group, noting their identity, behavioral state (condition), and the distance of each from your focal animal using the distance categories noted above. If one of the other individuals is out of view, you will note “FV” for “fuera de vista”.

If you can see that other individuals are not within a certain distance of your focal animals, but you cannot say if it is within the next greater distance category, record the distance as “>XX”. For example, if you know that there is no other individual within 10m of your focal but you cannot see all around you between 10 and 20m, record “>10” as the distance to each other animal in the group. It is VERY IMPORTANT that you record something for all other possible individuals in the group, whether you see them or not. That is, if you do not see them, still be sure to record the distance in which you see that they are not, as in the example above.

On group scan points within focal samples, nearest neighbor data will be recorded as during other points: if your focal animal is a dependent infant/juvenile being carried you should record as the nearest neighbor the closest animal NOT carrying your focal. Similarly, if your focal animal is carrying a dependent infant/juvenile, record as the nearest neighbor the closest individual that is NOT the dependent. However, if a dependent infant/juvenile is not on another individual, simply score the closest animal as its nearest neighbor. Note that here we will indeed have data on who is carrying a dependent because if it is the focal, it will show up with the infant in contact, and if it is another animal, it will show up with the infant as SRI with the partner indicated. There is also a CHECK BOX to indicate which, if any, scanned animals are carrying a dependent offspring.


THE ETHOGRAM

Below, you will read about the different behaviors included in the ethogram. The list of behaviors and codes to record them include both behaviors that should be sampled as STATES (“CONDICIONES”) and behaviors that should be sampled as EVENTS.

The description of the ethogram is organized around six main sections. Each section presents the behaviors associated with six mutually exclusive states in which you will classify your focal to be at any given sampling point. These behavioral states (or “condiciones”: we use the word “condiciones” rather than “estados” to have a word that does not begin with “e” in Spanish like “eventos”) are divided in six mutually exclusive categories: 1- Active or Inactive Out of View (“Activo” o “Inactivo Fuera de Vista”, AFV o IFV, or simply FV if you cannot say whether they are active or inactive), 2- Rest (“Reposar”, R), 3- Forage (“Forragear”, F), 4- Move (“Moverse”, M), 5- Other (“Otro”, O), and 6- Social (“Social”, S). It is at the level of these six fundamental states that our data are completely comparable among species.

In each section of the ethogram you will find a list of behaviors and codes. All behavioral states (i.e., the six major categories) have a code consisting of three or four letters, the first of which represents the basic state (or “condition”) and the rest the subcategory of the state or additional details about that behavior. In some of the sections you will find behaviors that are listed showing two codes, one with and one without an initial CONDITION code. These are codes for behaviors that most likely will be recorded as EVENTS, but if they occur at the sampling point you will record them with the condition letter at the front of the code.

While all behaviors in the ethogram, including “EVENTS”, can be the “CONDITION” recorded on the instantaneous sampling points IF they are the predominant activity for the 5 seconds after those points, not everything in the ethogram needs to be recorded as events between the instantaneous sampling points! For example, it is unnecessary to record “FBQ” (Forage Stationary Search) as an event, since these behaviors are of sufficient duration to be sampled adequately ONLY as conditions (“states”). Behaviors indicated in the ethogram with both 3-digit "CONDITION" and 2-digit "EVENT" codes thus should be scored as either "CONDITIONS" or "EVENTS" depending on whether they occur as the predominant activity on an instantaneous record point or between those points. Behaviors with a 2-letter code only (i.e., that don't also have an option listed that includes the 1-letter “CONDITION” code at the beginning) should only be scored as events. These would include, for example, “AT+”, “AT-“, and “ATX” within “Forage” or “TA”, “TS”, “EX”, and “RE” within “Move”.


Activo o Inactivo Fuera de Vista (AFV o IFV o FV)

The animal cannot be seen but the observer knows that it is there and can determine at least whether it is active or inactive.

Code Description English Definition English
FV Out of View The animal cannot be seen, the observer knows that it is there but cannot determine whether it is active or inactive.
IFV Inactive Out of View The animal cannot be seen but the observer knows that it is there and can determine at least whether it is active or inactive. Inactive: the animal is resting or being social but is still (“quieto”). IFV will probably be used when it is clearly inactive, but you cannot tell if resting, social or other category that implies being still.
AFV Active Out of View The animal cannot be seen but the observer knows that it is there and can determine at least whether it is active or inactive. Active: the animal is either moving, foraging, or being social, but NOT resting or being social while remaining still (“quieto”). AFV will probably be used in circumstances when the animals is clearly active but you cannot tell if foraging, moving or social because it is out of view.


Rest/Reposo (R)

The individual is still (“quieto”). The three subcategories are: rest vigilant or “reposa vigilando” (RV), rest wait or “reposa esperando” (RES), and rest passive or “reposa pasivo” (RP). When R is scored for minutes 2, 6, 10, 14 or 18, you should note the position that the focal is resting in with respect to whatever individuals it may be in contact with using the following position codes:
Enter the applicable position code in PARENTHESIS and separated by a SPACE after the resting code. i.e., “RPA (CE)”.

Code Description English Definition English
RPA Rest Passive Eyes Open Still, motionless, passive with eyes open.
RPC Rest Passive Eyes Closed Still, motionless, passive with eyes closed.
RPX Rest-Reposo Passive Undetermined Still, motionless, but cannot tell if eyes are open or closed.
RVS Rest Vigilant Social Still, motionless, and looking in the direction of a conspecific.
RVO Rest Vigilant at Observer Still, motionless, and looking in the direction of the observer.
RVA Rest Vigilant at Environment Still, motionless, and looking at the surrounding environment (including observing other animals of different species).
RVX Rest-Reposo Vigila Unknown Still, motionless, and looking at something unknown.
RES Rest Wait Still, motionless, and waiting on another individual.
RFV Rest Out of View Apparently still, motionless, although cannot be seen.
RXX Rest Undetermined Still, motionless, but impossible to classify which subcategory.


Forage/Forrajeo (F)

The search for (“busqueda”) (FB), manipulation (“manipulación) (FM), or eating (“ingestión”) (FE) of food items. The second letter of the code indicates which of these three is the appropriate substate, while the third and, occasionally, fourth, letters refer to other pertinent details about the kind of search, manipulation, or ingestion seen. Forrageo also includes movements within the same tree crown if they are part of the search for food items within the same feeding bout (e.g., FCP). These movements must be short (a couple of seconds) and the animal must be feeding both before and after the movement. Whenever Forrajeo is recorded, you should note the species consumed or the reference number of the feeding source fed upon in the “Additional Info” section of your Focal Data (e.g., “Inga”, or “AV-05-122”).

Note that for the Atelines Project, we will also record FORAGE EVENTS for infants using same codes (minus the F) to get at infant development of foraging competence. To the "manipulate" codes will be added the suffix (H) or (M) to indicate whether with "hands" or "mouth". Successive foraging events will only be noted if the substrate manipulated changes or if the subject changes from manipulating a substrate with H to M or vice versa; multiple successive events of the same type on the same substrate are thus not recorded.

Code Description English Definition English
FEFL/EFL Forage Eat Flowers Takes flowers into the mouth
FEFR/EFR Forage Eat Fruit Takes fruit into the mouth and spits out or swallows seeds
FEML/EML Forage Eat Mature Leaves Takes leaves into the mouth that because of their size and color appear mature
FENL/ENL Forage Eat New Leave Takes leaves into the mouth that because of their size and color appear immature
FEXL/EXL Forage Eat Undetermined Leaves Takes leaves into the mouth of unknown degree of maturation. 
FEOT/EOT Forage Eat Other Takes into the mouth other items, including fungus, water
FESE/ESE Forage Eat Seeds Takes seeds into the mouth, discarding the fruit pulp or husk
FEXX/EXX Forage Eat Undetermined Takes something into the mouth, but impossible to classify subcategory
FMA/MA Forage Manipulate (Substrate in Search of) Animal Uses the hands or the mouth to manipulate a substrate apparently in search of animal prey (e.g, unrolling dead leaves, tearing through dead wood). Include (H) or (M) as a suffix to indicate with "hands" or with "mouth"
FMP/MP Forage Manipulate Plant Uses the hands or the mouth to manipulate plant material prior to taking it into the mouth (e.g., removing husk from fruit). Include (H) or (M) as a suffix to indicate with "hands" or with "mouth"
FBM Forage Moving Search Moves the head in various directions apparently searching visually for insects or other food items while moving its body slowly
FBQ Forage Stationary Search Moves the head in various directions apparently searching visually for insects or other food items while remaining still (“quieto”)
FCP/CP Forage Change Positions Moves within the same tree crown to switch from one section of a plant feeding patch to another
FFV Forage Out of View Apparently eating, manipulating or searching for food, although cannot be seen
FXX Forage Undetermined Foraging, but cannot specify if searching, manipulating, or eating
FEIN Forage Eat Insects Eat insects. Score what kind in “DETAILS” if possible.
AT- Attack unsuccessfully Quickly lunges or grabs at a prey item or at an apparent substrate for a prey item and it does NOT SUCCEED, meaning it does not take something into the mouth.
AT+ Attack, successfully Quickly lunge or grab at a prey item or at an apparent substrate for a prey item. Success of attack should be scored as + when the animal masticates or takes something into the mouth.
ATX Attack, unknown result Quickly lunges or grabs at a prey item or at an apparent substrate for a prey item and it is unknown whether it succeeds or not.


Move/Movimiento (M)

Animal displaces itself some distance A to B. Does not include displacements associated with foraging bouts (see Forrageo Cambiar Posiciones, FCP). In the case of observing infants as the focal, this category will include the movements of the infant relative to other individuals, i.e. exploring.

Code Description English Definition English
MBT Move Between Changes trees but NOT within the context of the progression of a group or individual in a defined direction.
MWI Move Within Movement of at least one body length within a tree but NOT within the context of the progression of a group or individual in a defined direction.
MLE Move Lead Movement of at least one body length in the context of a group progression along the same rough path of the rest and it is the first one in the progression.
MSE Move Second Movement of at least one body length in the context of a group progression along the same rough path and focal is located in the 2nd position in the progression.
MCE Move Central Movement of at least one body length in the context of a group progression along the same rough path and focal is located in a central position in the progression.
MEN Move End Movement of at least one body length in the context of a group progression along the same rough path and focal is located last in the progression.
MPX Move Position Undetermined Movement of at least one body length within or between trees in a defined direction and the focal individual is either moving alone or is part of a group progression but its position in the progression cannot be determined.
MCI Moving in Contact Infanton parent by infant Infant moving on individual, perhaps exploring while remaining dependent.  Not in ethogram table
MFV Move Out of View Apparently moving, although cannot be seen.
MXX Move Undetermined Moving, but impossible to classify subcategory.
TA Move-Transfer Asistida The infant moves from one individual to other, remaining DEPENDENT ALL THE TIME, and with help from other individual.
TS Move-Transfer Sin Asistencia The infant moves from one individual to other, remaining DEPENDENT ALL THE TIME, and WITHOUT help from other individual.
EX Move-Excursion The infant moves from being dependent to being independent.
RE Move-Regreso The infant moves from being independent to being dependent.
CA Move-Cambiar Arbol

I THOUGHT WE HAD REMOVED THE CODE CA FOR CAMBIAR ARBOL, I KNOW THEY ARE NOT USING IT IN ARGENTINA, AND I DO NOT SEE IT IN THE PROTOCOL THAT GABY USED IN FORMOSA.

Other/Otro (O)

The behaviors considered here are relatively short in duration and occur infrequently. As such, they are best considered as events and sampled as all-occurrences between each instantaneous sample point. Nonetheless, it may occur that the predominant activity of a focal individual at an instantaneous sample point is one of the following behaviors, in which case “O” should be noted as the state (“condición”) along with the code for the event.

Code Description English Definition English
ORP/RP Rub Chest/Pectoral The chest region is moved with pressure and friction against the substrate by sliding the body forward.  It may also be pressed in a downward motion with hands and/or arms.
ORG/RG Rub Genitals The anogenital region is in contact with a substrate and the body is slid forward or laterally moving the rear part of the body.
ORF/RF Rub Face The face is in contact with a substrate and the cheek is slid forward or laterally against the substrate.
OROP/ROP Rub Over Pectoral The chest region is moved with pressure and friction against the substrate by sliding the body forward after another animal did the same on that section of the substrate.
OROG/ROG Rub Over Genital The anogenital region is in contact with a substrate and the body is slided forward or laterally moving the rear part of the body after another animal did the same on that section of the substrate.
OROF/ROF Rub Over Face The face is in contact with a substrate and the cheek is slided forward or laterally against the substrate after another animal did the same on that section of the substrate.
DF Defecation Common usage.
UW Urine Wash Focal animal wets its hands with its own urine and then rubs its hands on some part of its body.
US Urinate Social Focal animal urinates a few drops outside of the context of normal voiding or not immediately alter getting up from sleep.
UM Urinate Metabolic A relatively long episode of urinating, typically associated with getting up from sleep.
OSP/SP Solo Play To play alone. Non-stereotypic and repetitive behavior that occurs independently from another conspecific.
YW Yawn To open the mouth and bare the anterior teeth outside of the context of a social interaction with another individual.
OGS/GS Self Groom Use the hands or mouth to separate ones own fur while looking at the section of fur being examined, apparently in search of something.
RS Ritual Scratching Self-scratching prior to waking up or going to sleep.
ES Escape Behavior Rapid drop into lower vegetation, typically following alarm vocalization.



Social/Sociál (S)

This state (“condición”) includes behaviors that are readily considered states (grooming, nursing, play, proximity, contact), others that are readily considered events, and others that could be considered either states or events depending on their duration. If during the five seconds following an instantaneous scan point, the predominant activity of the focal animal is one of the behaviors listed below, record an “S” for the state, plus the appropriate code detailing the behavior.

Note that if you are doing a focal on an animal and an individual carrying an infant approaches, leaves, or passes by your focal, you should score that as your focal receiving that behavior from the carrier, but not the infant. If the focal approaches, leaves, or passes by another individual carrying an infant, score that as your focal performing the behavior to BOTH the carrier and the infant.WE STARTED TALKING ABOUT THIS, WE NEED TO DECIDE WHAT TO DO. If you are doing a focal on either a carrier or an infant and another animal approaches, leaves, or passes by them, that behavior would be relevant for both the infant and the carrier, although you would only score the behavior for the individual on whom you are doing the focal.
In the following list, two codes are listed (one with an initial “S” and one without) for codes that can be scored as either conditions or events. Only those codes listed below both ways should ever be recorded as a state.

I TALKED TO MARCELO AND GABY ABOUT SPC AND SP1, I WILL TELL YOU ABOUT IT SO THAT WE CAN DECIDE.

Code Description English Definition English
SGMA/GMA Social Groom Actor The focal uses the hands or mouth to manipulate the hair of another individual with gaze directed at the part of the body being manipulated. Also note the context if obvious (affiliative, sexual, aggressive) in the Additional Info section.
SGMR/GMR Social Groom Recipient Another individual uses the hands or mouth to manipulate the hair of the focal with gaze directed at the part of the body being manipulated. Also note the context if obvious (affiliative, sexual, aggressive) in the Additional Info section.
SGMM/GMM Social Groom Mutual It is groomed and it grooms simultaneously.
SGMX/GMX Social Groom Undetermined It is not known whether the focal is being groomed or is grooming.
SNU/NU Social Nurse Infant has mouth in contact with nipple or mammary tissue of female.
SPL/PL Social Play Continued grappling, chasing, pushing, pursuing between the focal and at least one more individual in a non-aggressive context not related to food.
SP1/P1 Social In Proximity 1 meter Focal animal remains sitting or lying for at least 10 sec within 1m of another individual who is resting.
SPC/PC Social In Contact Focal animal remains sitting or lying for at least 10 sec in contact with another individual who is resting.
STT/TT Social Tail Twining Focal is in physical contact with another individual sitting quietly side by side, awake or asleep, and tails are wrapped around each other for at least one turn.
SFV Social Out of View Apparently engaged in any of the other social categories defined in the ethogram but cannot be seen (and NOT F, M, R, O).
SRI Social Riding Code for dependent infants only. Use when they are riding on another individual. Score the identity of the other individual as the partner. Prior to January 2008, this code was RRI.
SXX Social Undetermined Engaged in any of the other social categories defined in the ethogram, but impossible to classify subcategory.
SAGA/AGA Social Aggression Actor The focal may be grabbing, hitting or biting another individual, it can include vigorous grasping, pulling or slapping at another, this may occur together with biting.
SAGR/AGR Social Aggression Recipient Another individual may be grabbing, hitting or biting the focal, it can include vigorous grasping, pulling or slapping at the focal, this may occur together with biting.
SAGM/AGM Social Aggression Mutual It is aggressive and receives aggression simultaneously.
SAGX/AGX Social Aggression Undetermined Not known whether it gives or receives aggression.
SMO/MO Mate/Mount The focal mounts another individual, while moving its pelvis repeatedly or the focal is mounted while the other individual moves its pelvis repeatedly.
GPA Groom Present Actor Exposes a part of the body to solicit grooming.
GPR Groom Present Receiver Grooms an animal that presents for grooming.
SINA/INA Inspect Actor Sniffing, licking, or exploring the genital area of another individual, or the urine of another individual.
SINR/INR Inspect Recipient Another individual sniffs, licks or explores the genital area of the focal, or the urine of the focal.
SINM/INM Inspect Mutual The focal and another individual are at the same time sniffing, licking or exploring each others’ genital area or urine.
SINX/INX Inspect Undetermined The focal and another individual are involved in an "inspect", but it is not obvious who plays which role.
SFSA/FSA Food Share Actor The focal feeds from the same piece of food another individual is feeding from, with the focal being the first to be eating or manipulating the food item. In the case of an infant or a juvenile it includes when the infant manipulates the food together with another individual, when it gets food or when they share food, WITHOUT ANIMOSITY FROM EITHER. With some resistence but not aggression?
SFSR/FSR Food Share Recipient The focal feeds from the same piece of food another individual is feeding from, with the other individual being the first to be eating or manipulating the food item. In the case of an infant or a juvenile it includes when the infant manipulates the food together with another individual, when it gets food or when they share food, WITHOUT ANIMOSITY FROM EITHER. With some resistence but not aggression?
FRA+ Food Rob Actor Successful The focal SUCCESSFULLY grabs a piece of food from another individual with the other individual offering resistance or trying to keep the food away from the focal with some form of aggression. In sakis this sometimes occurs together with vocalizations.
FRA- Food Rob Actor Unsuccessful The focal UNSUCCESSFULLY grabs a piece of food from another individual with the other individual offering resistance or trying to keep the food away from the focal with some form of aggression. In sakis this sometimes occurs together with vocalizations.
FRR+ Food Rob Recipient Successful Another individual SUCCESSFULLY grabs a piece of food from the focal with the focal offering resistance or trying to keep the food away from the individual with some form of aggression. In sakis this sometimes occurs together with vocalizations.
FRR- Food Rob Recipient Unsuccessful Another individual UNSUCCESSFULLY grabs a piece of food from the focal with the focal offering resistance or trying to keep the food away from the individual with some form of aggression. In sakis this sometimes occurs together with vocalizations.
SFOA/FOA Follow Actor The focal moves in the same direction as another individual within 5 sec after that individual begins to move.
SFOR/FOR Follow Recipient Someone moves in the same direction of the focal within 5 sec after the focal begins to move.
DPA Displace Actor The focal moves to within 0.5m of another animal and stays put while the other animal moves to more than 0.5m within 3 sec.
DPR Displace Recipient Another animal moves within 0.5 m of the focal and stays put and the focal moves to more than 0.5 m within 3 sec.
APA Approach Actor The focal moves to within 0.5m of a stationary individual and stays for at least 3 sec.
APR Approach Recipient Another individual moves to within 0.5m of the focal and stays for at least 3 sec.
APX Approach Undetermined Animals are within 0.5 m of one another, approach has occurred, but who was responsible could not be recorded.
LVA Leave Actor The focal moves from within 0.5m to outside of 0.5m of another animal.
LVR Leave Recipient Another individual moves from within 0.5m to outside of 0.5m of the focal.
LVX Leave Undetermined The focal and another animal were within 0.5 m and one of the two moves so that the distance between them is now larger than 0.5m but it cannot be determined who moved.
CHA Chase Actor The focal moves rapidly to reduce the distance between itself and another animal which at the same time moves to apparently increase the distance between itself and the first animal.
CHR Chase Recipient Another individual moves rapidly to reduce the distance between itself and the focal which at the same time moves to apparently increase the distance between itself and the first animal.
SNN/NN Nose to Nose The focal and another individual bring their noses within a few centimeters one to the other, sometimes even touching.
SAR/AR Arching Callicebus:To raise up on feet or feet and hands while arching the back and sometimes bouncing.
SPR/PR Present To offer body for mating, grooming, or inspection.
SPI/PI Piloerection Callicebus: Hairs of the body and tail are erect. Usually in context of intergroup encounter. Usually in context of intergroup encounter.
STL/TL Tail Lashing Repetitive swinging of whole tail; usually in context of intergroup encounter. Note in the Additional Info section whether is from side to side or vertical. Mainly observed in Callicebus.
STC/TC Teeth Chattering Repeated rapid opening and closing of mouth. Mainly observed in Callicebus.
COA Conflict with Infant Actor The infant as focal grabs, hits, or bites another individual, it can include vigorous grasping, pulling or slapping at another, this may occur together with biting.
COR Conflict with Infant Recipient The infant as focal is grabbed, hit, or bitten by another individual, it can include vigorous grasping, pulling or slapping at another, this may occur together with biting.
PPA Pass By in Proximity Actor Locomotion that results in the focal going by another animal within a distance of 1m.
PPR Passed By in Proximity Recipient Locomotion by another individual that results in that individual going by the focal within a distance of 1m.
PTA Pass By Touching Actor Locomotion that results in the focal going by another animal  and making physical contact while doing it.
PTR Passed By Touching Actor Locomotion that results in another individual going by the focal and making physical contact while doing it.
RASocial Rub ActorRubs genital area over another individual. Mainly seen in Aotus (added to ethogram Feb 2008).
RRSocial Reb RecipientRecieves a genital rub from another individual. Mainly seen in Aotus (added to ethogram Feb 2008).


Vocalization/Vocalización (V)

Callicebus Vocalizations

WE NEED TO THINK ABOUT THIS, WHY WE SEPARATE VOCALIZATIONS BY SPECIES, BUT NOT OTHER BEHAVIORS?  MAY BE BECAUSE WE KNOW LESS ABOUT THE FUNCTION OF VOCALIZATIONS AND THUS CANNOT CONCLUDE THEY ARE THE SAME ACROSS SPECIES...
WE NEED TO ADD AOTUS CODES HERE.

Code Description English Definition English
CC Chirps, thrills and squeaks Short, quiet high pitched calls. Very hard to distinguish among various forms of these calls. They are used in two contexts: 1. As contact calls when foraging or moving. 2.As alarm calls. Individuals VCC to birds that fly close by and to observers.
VCHI/CHI Chirrup High pitched, loud calls. Used when animals are disturbed as an alarm call, or as contact far calls when individuals get lost from the group or combined with other vocalizations during solo calls or duets.
OU Moan Moans are long, low pitched, loud vocalizations. They are used early in the morning while moving towards the territory boundary usually introducing duets. They can also be heard when animals are disturbed by other species of primates.
VDU/DU Vocal Duet Duets are long sequences of loud calls performed by at least two individuals simultanously. Duets are combination of different types of vocalizations including “chirrups,” and“moans”
VWH/WH Solo (CP/CRP) Solo calls are calls similar to duets but only one individual performs it. Usually they include many chirrups followed by loud low pitched notes (Robinson: pumping or panting)
SC Scream Loud vocalization, similar to infant tantrums. Heard during group encounters, after aggressions, and when animals are darted.  
SZ Sneeze Short, noisy, burst sounds produced when exhaling air through their nose. Heard during group encounters and when animal is disturbed.
VIT/IT Infant Tantrum Buzzy, high pitched screams produced when there is a conflict between an individual and the infant (e.g., pushed, from back, food not shared etc.) or when inant is in distress.
VXX Vocalization Unknown  


Pithecia Vocalizations
VCV/CV Contact Long Contact vocalization. This is a loud and long call made of a repetition of notes  CVs appear to be used for group member location and movement, specifically in the context of member location at greater distances.
CVS Contact short This call can be low in volume and short in duration (CVS= Contact Vocalize Short) CVS is often used when one individual has found a food patch and is feeding and is greater than 10 meters from the other group members. CVSs often escalate to CVs when other group members do not join the calling individual or no vocalization is given in response.
TV Trill Trill vocalization. Soft call This vocalization is short in duration and steadily increasing in pitch for the female, but decreasing in pitch for the male (M group). This vocalization varies in volume. TVs seem to be used for group member location and movement as volume seems to increase with greater distance between individuals. TVs are generally preceded by several MM calls but are often followed by CVs if no response is given by other individuals. This vocalization could easily be confused with those of birds.
VTer/Ter Territorial Vocalization Loud long call used when group encounters a neighboring group. Incorporates a loud decreasing TV by the male and an increasing CV by the female. This is followed by the male performing a series of TWGs and ending in several HVs.  This call is commonly heard during inter-group encounters and is contagious between individuals.
MM MM VOC One note soft frequency modulated note. Sounds like a high pitch MM.
AAV Aerial Alarm Vocalization Arial alarm vocalization. A 1-4 syllables alarm vocalization very high in pitch.  This vocalization is performed when large birds fly overhead. Very often uttered by infants and juveniles.
VAV/AV Terrestrial Alarm Vocalization Long loud call. Vocalizations steadily increasing in pitch  and intensity. This call lasts for a varying length of time depending on the level of distress/nervousness of the animals and other group members usually become vigilant and start vocalizing as soon as they hear it.
AGV Aggressive Vocalization Often heard during Food Robs.
VXX Vocalization Unknown  

Aotus Vocalizations

VAL/AL Vocalization Ascending Creak Vocalizaciones potentes, emitidas por uno o varios monos, de cualquier sexo y clase de edad, al detectar un peligro potencial.  Un grupo de monos que no está habituado a la presencia humana, muy probablemente,  detendrá su actividad habitual y comenzará a hacer esta vocalización. 
VHT/HT Vocalization Tonal Hoots Vocalización potente Recuerda al ulular (hoot) de una lechuza.  Tono puro.
VHG/HG Vocalizacion Gruff Hoots Es una vocalización potente recuerda al ulular (hoot) de una lechuz, mas ronco y carraspeado, recuerda vagamente al ladrido de un perro. Tono ronco
VTUR/TUR Vocalizacion “MM” Vocalización potente, emitida por monos de ambos sexos, en el contexto de un encuentro entre dos grupos o un encuentro entre un grupo y un solitario. Suena como la turbina de una fabrica
   PAJ Vocalizacion Pajarito Vocalización un poco aguda, de poco patencia que recuerdo mucho al canto de un pajarito ( pajaro pequeño), comun en inf o Juv 
CHI Vocalizacion Chillido Vocalización  muy aguda, gral, en inf o juv en contextos de rechazo por parte de adultos al inf o agresión intragrupal.
VATT/AT Vocalization Ascending Creak Vocalizaciones igual a VAL, pero se le agrega un segundo sonido que suena como Tumm-Tumm, un repiqueteo, gral. empiza siendo VAL  pero si la situación se extiende en el tiempo, aparentenmte los monos se exitan mas y agregan el Tum Tum
VB Vocalization Baja Vocaliacion Grave de poco potencia parece ser en un contexto intragrupal de comunicación, de poca distancia. A veces asociadas a VAL, VAT.
SPI Vocalization SPI Vocaliacion de poco potencia parece ser en un contexto intragrupal , suena como una escupida.
ORR Vocalization ORR Vocaliacion de poco potencia, parece ser intragrupal. Suena Orr un poco ronco corto.
BRR Vocalization BRR Vocaliacion de poco potencia, parece ser intragrupal. Suena BRR corto, parce estar asociado a ind jóvenes.
VXX Vocalization Desconocida Vocaliazacion que no se ajusta a ninguna de las categorías menciondas (describir el sonido y comentar el contexto).

ALL-OCCURENCES EVENT DATA

In addition to data on the state of your focal animal, you should note all of the event behaviors that occur between successive instantaneous sampling points as EVENTS (“eventos”) in the list of events occurring between the two minute points, or as separate records on the Palm Data Recorders.

For these, you will note each event that occurs, along with details of who was the actor and who was the recipient of the behavior (in the case of social events). You should also try to note additional information, such as the CONTEXT in which the event occurred (e.g., “in a feeding tree”, “during a copulation”, “no obvious context”, etc.) if they pertain to displacements or other interesting or unusual events (e.g., copulations, fights). These additional details should be noted in parentheses following the behavior code.

For example, if Mendel is your focal and you see him displace Mona in a feeding tree, you would record “DPA MO (in feeding tree)”. Note all events, separated by SLASHES and with a slash at the end of the line, in the order in which they occur in the Events section of the datasheet associated with the particular 2 minutes window in which they occurred. You do not need to note the times for these events as we will know those times to within 2 minutes because they are associated with a particular interval within your focal sample (on the Palm, they will get a time stamp automatically). For data entry on the computer, MAKE SURE that a SLASH separates each event WITHOUT SPACES BETWEEN EVENTS and with a slash at the end of the line.  For events involving a partner, use the 2-letter or 3-letter code to refer to the partner individual AFTER the event code using a SPACE to separate the event code from the partner code and with a slash at the end of the event (example: if your focal is Mondika and Mona passes by him in proximity, you would score “PPR MO/”).

For all these EVENTS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS record social/directional information with respect to your focal; e.g., if your focal is Mona and she is approached by Mondika record “APR MD” not “MD APA MO”; even though these are equivalent, for consistency of data entry and analysis we ONLY use the former.

Also, please try to note the additional specific data for the following events: THESE ARE SOME OF THE KEY TERMS WE WERE TALKING ABOUT FOR THE REPORT: SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, OLFACTION, ETC.


AD LIBITUM DATA

Ad libitum data are very important and you may decide to interrupt the focal to be able to describe in great detail a very unusual event like copulations, courtship, fights. For these, note the time, participants, and behavior and describe the behavior in as much detail as possible in PP Ad Lib Data database on the Palm Data Recorder or in the Ad Lib Data section of your Data Book if collecting data on paper.

These ad lib data sections are also where you should record a couple of other types of observations we are interested in:

Finally, please record any significant/notable comments or concerns about each Avistaje in the Notes section of the AVISTAJE (e.g., Mona has a botfly, Mendel seems to be lagging behind group, sakis were with army ants today, sakis moved with Lagothrix for 4 hours, etc.) and about each Focal Sample in the Notes section for the FOCAL SAMPLE.


NOTES FOR COLLECTING DATA ON PAPER

In Ecuador, we collect all of our field data into Palm Data Recorders. However, there may come a time when your Palm breaks or ceases to function well. In this case, you MUST BE PREPARED to collect data into Data Books. The data books we use are semi-waterproof. Different books should be used for phenology and behavioral data. Each data book should get a UNIQUE NUMBER that corresponds to your last name, a space, and 2 digits (e.g., “Hurst 01”, “Hurst 02”, etc.). In the interest of uniformity and for ease in both data entry and referring back to the original data when needed, your behavioral data book ABSOLUTELY MUST be [1] arranged in a STANDARD manner, [2] be kept neat and completely LEGIBLE, and [3] contain EXACTLY the information that is entered into the computer database. Everything entered in the computer must match what is in the data books, and if something is changed or modified in the computer files (e.g., an incorrectly recorded location or tree number is “fixed” in the computer database), you MUST FIND AND CORRECT that information in ALL of the appropriate places in the data books as well!

Set up your data books in the following sections: Observer Sample Data (ca. 6 pages at beginning); Avistajes (ca. 8 pages following the Observer Sample Data), Focal Samples and Focal Data (most of the rest of the book; 2 samples per open 2 page spread), with Ad Lib Data and Notes for each focal at the bottom; Group Scans (ca. 10 pages, close to the end of the book, preceding Ranging Data); Ranging Data (ca. 8 pages, close to end of book, preceding Marked Trees); Marked Trees (ca. 3 pages, close to end of book preceding Feeding Bout Data); Feeding Bout Data (ca. 5 pages at the end of the book); and a running Tally of FOCAL SAMPLES by date (last page). See the EXAMPLE DATA.